- Three-dimensional analysis of rockfalls - determination of the
path of falling boulders - frequency distiribution contour lines
of the stop points of the rock blocks - energy distribution in
relation to the mean and maximum kinetic energy - planimetric
graphical restitution and in-section restitution of resulting
data - optimisation of protective systems.
- Analysis of rock slope faces with the Key Block Theory - recognition
of the main discontinuity sets through hierarchical and non-hierarchical
clustering - analysis of real discontinuities, based on their
length and position on the slope face - identification of complex
removable blocks based on the selected kinematic mode - determination
of the volume of the rock blocks and of the safety factor of each
identified block - design of the rock bolting that is necessary
to reach a required safety factor.
- Structural geology data collection - identification of the discontinuity
sets through hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering - calculation
of the tensor of permeability - determination of the safety factor
of removable rock wedges: seismic conditions, water pressure,
tension cracks, external overloads and bolt forces are taken in
- Evaluation of the displacement of rock boulders subjected to
dynamic forces, on the basis of a given accelerogram - determination,
through pseudostatic analysis, of the acceleration that is necessary
to bring the slope to limit equilibrium conditions - evaluation
of the velocity and displacements in the direction of the sliding
for each point of the considered accelerogram and calculation
of the total displacement at the end of the seismic event in order
to evaluate the stability of the slope under examination.
- Classification of rock masses with the Bieniawski (RMR index)
and Barton (Q index) methods - the results of the calculation
are presented as a list that can be viewed and directly printed
by the program or imported into any word processor.
- Verification of the stability of slopes in granular soils -
calculations under normal and seismic conditions - analysis of
sliding surfaces with arbitrary shape or families of plane or
circular sliding surfaces - analysis in the presence of water,
in terms of total or effective stresses - possibility of dealing
with heterogeneous stratified terrains - verification of the interaction
between the slope and the restraint systems.
- Foundation analysis and design - bearing capacity of shallow
foundations with different shapes - comparison of the most used
calculation methods - homogeneous and stratified soils - bearing
capacity of deep foundations: micropiles, small and large diameter
piles - immediate and long term settlement in homogeneous or stratified
terrain for single and for multiple shallow foundations - differential
settlement - verification under seismic conditions and in the
presence of water.
- Design and verification of sheet-piles and bulkheads - several
levels of anchoring can be defined under different load conditions
- iterative calculation for correct evaluation of successive excavation
phases - the structure is calculated as a flexible beam on elasto-plastic
supports with different constraints at the extremities - structural
analysis of different sections (continuous diaphragms, beam bulkheads,
armoured piles, sheet-piles) is performed through the determination
of the moment and vertical stress, determined in the section under
the highest stress, with a method based on the limit-state concept
used in conjunction with the partial safety factor method (Eurocode
- Interpretation of static and dynamic geotechnical in situ tests
according to the most commonly adopted methods - STP tests: relative
density, friction angle, effective and total vertical stress,
constrained modulus, Young's modulus, cone resistance, shear modulus,
cyclic modulus of deformation, upper limit allowed for the subsidence/load
ratio. - CPT tests: friction angle, drained compressibility and
relative density, undrained shear strenght, compressibility, sensitivity
and overconsolidation - DP tests: all the information for the
SPT tests is supplied - the program can be adapted to any measuring
apparatus through correlation coefficients.
- Verification and design of retaining walls - gravity, semigravity
and cantilever retaining walls - evaluation of the safety factor
under normal and seismic conditions - validation of the concrete
design and dimensioning of the reinforcement through the calculation
of the bending moment of the foundation and of the footing pressure.
- Determination of the safety factor for the liquefaction of saturated
coehsionless soils subjected to seismic tremors - the evaluation
of soil resistance to cyclic shear forces is determined through
the correlation between the resistance to liquefaction and the
number of blows of the STP test - it is also possible to consider
the presence of overloads and the water table effect - the resistance
to liquefaction factor is calculated as the ratio between of the
shear force that induces liquefaction and the maximum shear force
induced by the seismic waves.
- Aquifer models using finite differences or superposition of
effects - unconfined, semi-confined and confined aquifers with
transitory flow rates - horizontal anisotropy of permeability
- reconstruction of the undisturbed aquifer - analysis for the
designing of the wells, catchment basins, barriers - determination
of flow isochrons - concentration of contamination using numerical
analysis during stationary or transitory flows.
- Definition and evaluation of areas at risk from contamination
around a waste disposal site - the territorial impact in the presence
of several wells - determination is performed on the basis of
parameters that are easily determined using an extension of the
Legrand method - graphic presentation of the form, dimension and
risk level of every zone.
- Analysis and interpretation of pump tests - calculation of the
main hydrogeological parameters - unconfined, confined and semi-confined
aquifers - constant discharge pumping tests, variable step drawdown,
and constant head - stationary or transitory conditions - single
well or with one or several observation wells - analytical calculation
methods or automatic interpretation of tables.
- Calculation of hydraulic sections with any geometrical or hydraulic
properties - determination, for the given section, of the trend
of the velocity and height values reached by the water - calculation
of a diagram of the flow in relation to the height, with an indication
of the height reached by the flow, as required by the design.
- Evaluation of water quantities for human use in accordance with
the parameters defined by the European Union directive number
80/778 - the index of the water quality is evaluated through a
user-defined system of points - for each parameter required, guide
points are given as well as maximum admissible values, measurement
units and the comments as contained in the directive.
- Construction of map surfaces for geological sciences - contour
lines - perspective views - the calculation methods are: inverse
distance weighting, kriging, extrapolation of the surface with
the recognition of the regional polynomial trend trough the elimination
of closures of the contour lines - vectors and flow lines - digital
filtering for geophysical techniques.
- Archiving of geological/geotechnical data and the results of
in situ tests - data are represented as stratigraphies - ample
choice of descriptive columns - flexibility in the choice and
position of the columns - most geological textures are available
with the option of adding and personalising them - graphical restitution
of sections with height profils - stratigraphical columns can
be inserted into the sections.
- Tomographic reconstruction of a vertical soil section through
the deployment of an array with a maximum of 64 electrodes - full
inversion using a Finite Elements Method (Sasaki, 1994) - high
resolution results - the classical pseudosections method is also
available - works with dipole-dipole, pole-dipole, Wenner and
Schlumberger measurement system.
the programs, developed entirely by our company, are extremely
simple and easy to use and sport the same interface in order
to minimise the time necessary to use them proficiently.
the commands are contained within the menus on the menu bar
at the top of the window and can either be selected with the
mouse or with the shortcut keys.
The layout of the menus, according to an ergonomical design,
follows the logical order of operations preventing access to
the following commands until all the required data have been
programs use practical and efficient input windows that give
immediate information on the data fields and automatically validate
the entered values.
first type of input window allows entering tables of numerical
or alpha-numerical values. The automatic validation procedure
performs a check to immediately intercept range or typing errors
in the entered data.
data entered in the tables can be copied into other tables
using "cut and paste" options.
windows allow entering single numerical, alpha-numerical or
multiple-choice values. Those windows also perform the automatic
validation of the entered data.
of the type of field, the introduction of inadequate values
activates warning messages.
The introduction of data such as geomechanical parameters
can be performed through an interactive graphic interface.
Working with the mouse directly on the screen, it is so possible
to assign different sets of values to the selected areas.
program offers on-line help for each window or data field.
yellow box in the input windows shows a detailed description
of each required input.
attention has been paid to the handling of printing devices.
The graphic output is produced using vectorial procedures
that maintain the highest quality both in the direct prints
and in the exported files.
program has a print preview window, whose tool bar allows zooming
onto the details of the drawing and panning of the whole image
to check the grafics before output.
Graphics can be exported to EMF, a vectorial format that allows
pasting the images into programs like Microsoft Word or Corel
Draw maintaining the same high quality of the direct printouts;
the DXF format is also available to to transfer the drawings
into CAD programs.
Colour, font and line thickness of each detail of the graphic
output can be individually configured.
The output listings can be pre-viewed or directly printed,
and can be exported to Microsoft Word, Excel or NorePad.